Some Learning Theories/Models/Frameworks

As my semester is coming to an end, I tried to go through every learning path activity in my ICT and Pedagogy course. I am happy to say that I have gotten 96% for my completion (I’m actually happy overall with my Learning Journal portion of Assignment 3- I should be getting 5/5!). One activity was to fill in a blank table on the purpose and application various learning theories, models, and frameworks that we have learnt about during the semester.

I decided that since it is actually after the due date for the assignment (and therefore most people cannot change their grades by quickly submitting the table) that there would be no harm in uploading it to share with others. 🙂

Theory Purpose Application to Assignment 3 / Professional Experience
CLEM Model Help understand how to learn about a new ICT and how to use it to enhance student learning. If there are any new ICTs you need to use, it might help your explorations.

Hence might be useful as a part of the planning process for Part B.

TPACK Framework Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge is used by teachers to identify the knowledge needed to effectively teach technology- Content Knowledge, Pedagogical Knowledge, and Technological Knowledge. May help teachers decide what they are capable of teaching students.

Identify what the focus can be for the lesson.

Backwards Design Identify the desired results, then the students’ evidence of achievement, and finally the learning experiences. Find out what the students are expected to achieve by the end of the lesson/week/unit, what students will need to be able to do/achieve to be consider adept, brainstorm how to best teach these concepts/abilities, plan these ideas into a teaching sequence.
RAT Framework ICT as Replacement,

ICT as Amplification, and

ICT as Transformation.

Consider how ICTs are used during lessons on professional experience, consider if there is an alternative way to use ICTs, discuss ICTs with mentor, “is this the best use of the ICT?”.
TIP Model The Technology Integration Planning model gives five stages to help address the issues in implementing technology:

·         Decide on objectives and assessments,

·         What advantage does ICT give?

·         Design ICT integration strategies,

·         Organise the learning environment to enable strategies to work, and

·         What worked well? What needs to be improved?

Use in Assignment 3 to reflect upon the ICTs implemented during professional experience.
The 5Es An inquiry-based teaching model.

·         Engage,

·         Explore,

·         Explain,

·         Elaborate, and

·         Evaluate.

Requires students to learn in a more hands-on fashion.

Can be used so students are directing their own learning, as opposed to teachers simply giving out facts.

WALT and WILF We Are Learning To…

What I’m Looking For…

Helps synthesise learning.

Is a good way to start the lesson/day so students know what is expected of them.

Connectivism Teaching that focuses on the social and cultural context in learning.

The learning tool is more important than the knowledge.

The students may learn better through different tools than the expected and regular tools that are usually implemented.

Find different resources and tools to help support student leanring.

Bloom’s Taxonomy Using the tools and technologies to facilitate learning.

Lower Order Thinking Skills (LOTS) to Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS).

Can be used to identify if a (ICT) resource will require students to use higher- or –lower order thinking skills.
Postman’s Five Things There are five things to know about technological change:

1.      Technology is always a trade-off,

2.      Technology creates winners and losers,

3.      There is a powerful idea embedded in every technology,

4.      Technology is ecological, not additive, and

5.      Technology tends to become mythic.

The understanding that ICTs and technology can have both benefits and downfalls. The teacher must evaluate the context and reason for using the ICT, and ensure that all students have the capability and resources to use them.
Toolbelt Theory / TEST Framework Each person has a range of “tools” they can use.

Consider the Task, Environment, Skills, and Tools.

Consider the “tools” at my disposal and use the TEST Framework to select one.
PKM Seek– Find things out and keep up to date, Sense– Personalise information and use it, and

Share– Exchanging resources, ideas and experiences.

Keep up to date with the learning path activities; collaborate with mentor during professional experience, write down feedback and reflections after lessons, collect resources from professional experience.


As part of the learning path for my ICT and Pedagogy course, we were asked to complete four modules of work on the Connect.ed Cyber Safety website. I have to say that I really enjoyed it.

Since I am only 23, I did use technology throughout primary/high school, which is very fortunate as it helps me to draw on my own experiences as I consider students today and how I can help them as a teacher.

I think my favourite part of the website was actually the two simulations of a fake student (a 14 year old girl and 11 year old boy) on a made up social network and interacting with their “friends”. I few times I felt like rolling my eyes at the responses, but I had to try and put myself in their shoes and respond to their friends as I would at that age.

Kids today have so many little social nuances that it is really difficult to think what the “correct” answer would be- without getting someone angry or upset!

I also really liked the Hector’s World videos- they were really cute!

Postman’s First Idea: Technology Is Always A Trade-off – Technology Giveth and Technology Taketh Away

“Technology giveth and technology taketh away. This means that for every advantage a new technology offers, there is always a corresponding disadvantage. The disadvantage may exceed in importance the advantage, or the advantage may well be worth the cost. Now, this may seem to be a rather obvious idea, but you would be surprised at how many people believe that new technologies are unmixed blessings.”

Postman, 1998

Reading has always been one of my greatest passions. Some of my earliest memories were of my mum buying me one of those golden books in our grocery shopping every week. By the time I was in primary school, I had a vast library that I was always using. Even now, I have about 100 books around my house, but obviously, I find it difficult to find room to put all of these books away. This is one of the main reasons I bought a kindle. Now I can buy my books electronically, without having to worry about where they’re all going to fit on my bookshelf. That’s not to say that I don’t love the smell and feel of a good paperback (I really do!), but I like to choose between both forms of books depending on my needs.

Postman’s Second Idea: Technology Creates Winners and Losers

“I say only that since technology favors some people and harms others, these are questions that must always be asked.”

Postman, 1998

Technology is definitely an area that can separate the recently graduated teachers from the teachers who have taught for decades. These teachers that have been teaching for many years are sometimes stumped by new technology, and may need to call for IT support for help in fixing any problems (like the Interactive Whiteboard). Some students (and even teachers) see this as the teacher not being capable of teaching students, despite the fact they have a good grasp on the curriculum and how to teach it.

I actually saw a funny post on Tumblr a while back. The first person mentioned how much better it will be when their generation (I took it to mean that the original poster was in high school) are teachers and actually know how minimise out of a screen. The next person reblogged from them and added a funny script that showed by that time, computers could be holographic and the teacher will still get that exasperated class of students yelling out “no just do this! It’s not that hard! Here… I’ll do it…”

Postman’s Third Idea: There Is A Powerful Idea Embedded In Every Technology

“The third idea, then, is that every technology has a philosophy which is given expression in how the technology makes people use their minds, in what it makes us do with our bodies, in how it codifies the world, in which of our senses it amplifies, in which of our emotional and intellectual tendencies it disregards.”

Postman, 1998

If you ask people today what they use the internet for, there will be wide range of responses- everything from funny cat videos to Facebook to (let’s be honest) adult content. I myself like to browse Tumblr for news on my favourite television shows, movies and books, not to mention download games onto my computer (Age of Empires, The Sims, Dragon Age, etc.). The initial reason for developing the internet, however, was so that multiple universities across the globe could share research and information.

Postman’s Fourth Idea: Technology Is Ecological, Not Additive

“In the year 1500, after the printing press was invented, you did not have old Europe plus the printing press. You had a different Europe. After television, America was not America plus television. Television gave a new coloration to every political campaign, to every home, to every school, to every church, to every industry, and so on.”

Postman, 1998

I found it really hard thinking about this idea, and I think it has to do with the fact that I am not really (that!) old. By the time I was in school, computers and the internet were not quite to the degree that they are now, but definitely integrated into society already. I think the most integral part of technology and computers that seems more ecological than simply additive is the communicative devices. So many people now have smart phones that can make phone calls, send text messages and access e-mails wherever they are, whereas before these phones were invented these jobs had to be done from home or office.

Postman’s Fifth Idea: Technology Tends To Become Mythic

“I use this word in the sense it was used by the French literary critic, Roland Barthes. He used the word “myth” to refer to a common tendency to think of our technological creations as if they were God-given, as if they were a part of the natural order of things. I have on occasion asked my students if they know when the alphabet was invented. The question astonishes them. It is as if I asked them when clouds and trees were invented. The alphabet, they believe, was not something that was invented. It just is. It is this way with many products of human products of human culture but with none more consistently than technology.”

Postman, 1998

My family only consists of myself and my mother (and two dogs) who was a stay-at-home mum until she got her Education Support certificate and started work as a teacher aide. For this reason, we went without the more “extravagant” items, such as a computer until I was in Year 6 or 7, and internet access until about Year 9. For this reason, I always had to go to the library and search through the non-fiction books for any homework or assignments that I had. Now that I’m at university, all of my research is done online through online journals (the exception of course, being university textbooks). Most students today go straight for the online research, as it is easily accessible and all-knowing to them, and the non-fiction sections at the public library seem a lot smaller than they were years ago.